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Author Topic: Reward and Punishments  (Read 9646 times)
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Hanna
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« on: June 02, 2007, 08:41:25 PM »


Most training revolves around giving the dog consequences for his behaviour, in the hope of influencing the behaviour the dog will exhibit in the future. Operant conditioning defines four types of consequences:

Positive reinforcement adds something to the situation to increase the chance of the behaviour being exhibited again (for example, giving a dog a treat when he sits.)

Negative reinforcement removes something from the situation to increase the chance of the behaviour being exhibited again (for example, releasing the tension on an uncomfortable training collar when the dog stops pulling on the leash).

Positive punishment adds something to the situation to decrease the chance of the behaviour being exhibited again (for example, verbally growling at a dog to make it stop jumping up).

Negative punishment removes something from the situation to decrease the chance of the behaviour being exhibited again (for example, walking away from a dog who jumps up).

Most modern trainers say that they use "positive training methods", which is a different meaning of the word "positive" from that in operant conditioning. "Positive training methods" generally means preferring the use of reward-based training to increase good behavior over that of physical punishment to decrease bad behavior. However, a good trainer understands all four methods, whether or not they can put operant-conditioning terminology to them, and applies them as appropriate for the dog, the breed, the handler, and the situation.

Rewards
Positive reinforcers can be anything that the dog finds rewarding - special food treats, the chance to play with a tug toy, social interaction with other dogs, or the owner's attention. The more rewarding a dog finds a particular reinforcer, the more work he will be prepared to do in order to obtain the reinforcer.

It is important that the dog is not "bribed" to perform. In dog training, the term "bribery" means that the dog is aware of the presence of the reward before he is asked to complete the command. The risk with bribery is that the dog will refuse to comply with commands when he cannot see the reward, since he knows from experience that he will only be rewarded when he can see the reward. Experienced trainers will hide the reward from the dog, and only produce the reward once the dog has already complied with the command. The goal is to produce a dog who will perform even on occasions that the handler has no reward to offer, since the dog's training has taught him that the handler may have a reward even if the dog cannot see it.

Some trainers go through a process of teaching a puppy to strongly desire a particular toy, in order to make the toy a more powerful positive reinforcer for good behaviour. This process is called "building prey drive", and is commonly used in the training of Narcotics Detection and Police Service dogs. The goal is to produce a dog who will work independently for long periods of time, in the hopes of earning access to its special toy reward.

Punishments
Positive punishment is probably the consequence that is least used by modern dog trainers, as it must be used very carefully. A dog is generally only given this type of punishment if it is willfully disobeying the owner. Punishing a dog who does not understand what is being asked of him is not only unfair to the dog, but can make the dog a fearful or unwilling worker.

Punishments are administered only as appropriate for the dog's personality, age, and experience. A sharp No works for many dogs, but some dogs even show signs of fear or anxiety with harsh verbal corrections. On the other hand, certain dogs with 'harder' temperaments may ignore a verbal reprimand, and may need a physical punishment such as a quick tug on a training collar. Trainers generally advise keeping hand contact with the dog to positive interactions; if hands are used to threaten or hurt, some dogs may begin to behave defensively when stroked or handled.

Punishment should only be used if the dog performs something unwanted and you catch the dog in the act or within a very short time of it. A dog who ate the remote in the morning, will not understand why it is being punished at night. Punishment avoidance techniques can be used to control the dog's behavior while unsupervised.

Avoiding Punishments
Keeping a puppy on a leash in challenging situations or in his crate or pen when not closely supervised prevents the puppy from getting into situations that might otherwise invite an owner's harsh reaction (such as chewing up a favorite pair of shoes).

It is easy for them to disregard commands amongst the babble.

To reinforce the command, the dog always gets some kind of reward or reinforcement (praise and usually a treat or toy) when it performs the action correctly. This helps the dog to understand that he has done a good thing. It is important not to give treats every time, because the dog will only learn to complete a command when you have a treat in hand and will not be reliable when no treat is present.

Note that not all dogs are trained to voice command. Many working breeds of dog are not trained to a voice command at all; they are taught to obey a combination of whistles and hand signals. Deaf dogs are perfectly capable of learning to obey visual signals alone. Many obedience classes teach hand signals for common commands in addition to voice signals; these signals can be useful in quiet situations, at a distance, and in advanced obedience competitions.

The specific command words are not important, although common words in English include sit, down, come, and stay. Short, clear words that are easily understood by other humans are generally recommended; that way, people will understand what a handler is telling his dog to do and other handlers have a good chance of controlling someone else's dog if necessary. In fact, dogs can learn commands in any language or other communications medium, including whistles, mouth sounds, hand gestures, and so forth.


source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_training
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« on: June 02, 2007, 08:41:25 PM »

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noslen
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Goodluck


« Reply #1 on: June 18, 2007, 07:53:11 PM »

negative and positive reinforcements kailangan lang nasa timming ka  Grin
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godsdogs
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« Reply #2 on: August 30, 2007, 07:04:33 AM »

opo nasa timing nga dapat, saka constant ang training at both the dog and the owner must be having fun. ayos!
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eagleseye96
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stop puppy milling


« Reply #3 on: March 01, 2008, 12:22:57 PM »

ang sarap ng pakiramdam ng napasunod mo aso mo,lalo na f kita ng ibang tao,yon marinig mo lang na ang galing naman ng asong yon! nakatuwa na,wag na yong sabihin na mahusay ang trainer kc maraming expert na trainor eh,yon madinig mo ayos ah! ang husay naman ng asong yon.ang haplos ng pagmamahal eh malaking bagay bilang reward sa kanila at yon paglalaan ng oras.
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« Reply #4 on: March 12, 2010, 04:12:07 PM »

Thank you for this. I have been wanting to ask what to do to stop an unwanted behavior, such as playing with pooh.
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enad.seyer
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« Reply #5 on: July 13, 2011, 02:44:51 AM »

 Grin Grin Grin Grin
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