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Author Topic: How safe is Frontline?  (Read 5087 times)
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tess1984
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« on: April 30, 2010, 09:19:32 PM »


Frontline is a heavily market drug, with Fipronil as the main ingredient. It is advertized as a safe and effective product against ticks and fleas, but how safe is it.

Fipronil is an strong pesticide, there have been talks of sickness and death with the use of this pesticide and worse no studies prove safety in long term use for both animal and human owner. It is also NOT environmentally safe.

Note the fact sheet of Fipronil where rats and dogs tested exhibited sign of illness both neurological and physical with consumption of the drug. Dogs lick their fur, or will eat dead fleas or ticks in their fur, there is no guarantee that they will not somehow consume the drug. The mere skin absorption of the drug proves to be a concern as Fipronil can cause a lot of internal damage with us knowing.

Signs of toxicity can be as mild as hair loss, to neurological signs, to death.

Forum discussion on Dogs & Cats death and sickness related to frontline
http://www.pets.com/community/message-boards/dogs/get-well-soon/frontline-side-effects

No vet will deny that Frontline is a very strong pesticide which can cause harm to your pets, there is no guarantee for long term use.

Frontline as a pesticide that can also hamper your dog’s immunity, and make sensitive dogs gravely ill.
The effectiveness also varies, some users claim the in-affectability of some spot on products and spray products. Spray bottles tend to leak out into the air while vile form spot-on treatment are strongest and highly concentrated, it is with spot on treatment that most side effects occur. Hence application may be effective for a week or so, even less.

There have been growing concern for flea spot-on products in the U.S. and the government have little time and facilities to test all the spot-on products and label them safe due to the in excess of new products every year.

http://abcnews.go.com/video/playerIndex?id=7703156

So we ask, how safe is frontline when we have to use it once or twice a month for the next 10-13 years of OUR and our Dog’s lives.



Fipronil
Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fipronil

Fipronil is a broad spectrum insecticide that disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking the passage of chloride ions through the GABA receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl), components of the central nervous system. This causes hyperexcitation of contaminated insects' nerves and muscles. Insect specificity of fipronil may come from a better efficacy on GABA receptor but also on the fact that GluCl does not exist in mammals.[1]

Fipronil is a slow acting poison. When mixed with a bait it allows the poisoned insect time to return to the colony or haborage. In cockroaches the feces and carcass can contain sufficient residual pesticide to kill others in the same nesting site. In ants, the sharing of the bait among colony members assists in the spreading of the poison throughout the colony. With the cascading effect, the projected kill rate is about 95% in 3 days for ants and cockroaches.

Toxic baiting with Fipronil has also been shown to be extremely effective in locally eliminating German wasps (Yellow jacket). All colonies within foraging range are completely eliminated within one week.[2] Unlike broadcast applications, this application does not expose beneficial insects such as honeybees to the pesticide.

Wildlife impacts include the following:
•   Fipronil is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Its tendency to bind to sediments and its low water solubility may reduce the potential hazard to aquatic wildlife.[citation needed]
•   Fipronil is toxic to bees and should not be applied to vegetation when bees are foraging.[citation needed]
•   Fipronil has been found to be highly toxic to upland game birds, but is practically non-toxic to waterfowl and other bird species (2,4). One of the metabolites of fipronil has a higher toxicity to birds than the parent compound itself.[citation needed]

Fipronil is used as the active ingredient in Effipro, Frontline Top Spot (Merial) at about 9.8% concentration. Fipronil is also used together with (S)-methoprene (8.8%) in Frontline Plus (Merial), a topical flea and tick control commonly used on dogs and cats. It kills adult fleas before they lay eggs (within 24 hours). It is also the active ingredient in GardenTech's Over N Out season long fire ant control product.

After a local application of Effipro/Frontline, fipronil is slightly absorbed (approx. 15%) through the skin. Low levels of fipronil may be detected in the plasma, with a very high variability between dogs.[3]
It is also the active ingredient of Regent, now marketed by BASF, which also sells Fipronil under the brand name Termidor for use as a conventional barrier treatment for termites and also as a dust to be blown into termite tunnels. In the US, ant Fipronil based gels are sold under the MaxForce brand (mfg. Bayer), and under the Combat brand (mfg. Dial Corp). Both brands carry .01% Fipronil by weight as the active ingredient. Agricultural products include Chipco Choice for use against pests of field corn, golf courses and commercial turf.

It acts by binding to an allosteric site of GABAA receptors and GluCl receptor (of the insect), a form of non-competitive inhibition.

Acute oral LD50 (rat) 97 mg/kg
Acute dermal LD50 (rat) >2000 mg/kg

In animals and humans, fipronil poisoning is characterized by vomiting, agitation, and seizures, and can usually be managed through supportive care and early treatment of seizures.[4] [5] This risk may be associated with the withdrawal of the MaxForce tick management product.[6]
In May 2003, the DGAL (Direction Générale de l'Alimentation du ministère de l'Agriculture ) indicated a case of bee mortality observed in Southern France related to Fipronil acute toxicity. Intoxication was linked to defective seed treatment, which generated dust. In February 2003, the French Ministry of Agriculture decided to temporarily suspend the sale of BASF crop protection products containing fipronil in France. [7] The seed treatment involved has since been forbidden.[citation needed] Fipronil was used in a broad spraying to control locusts in Madagascar in a program that began in 1997 [8].
Fipronil was first developed by Rhone-Poulenc and patented under the US Patent No. US 5,232,940 B2. Since 2003, BASF holds the patent rights for producing and selling Fipronil based products in many countries.

NOTE: TECHNICAL FACT SHEET http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/fiptech.pdf




What Are the Dangers of Frontline?
By CL Hardy, eHow Contributing Writer
REF:http://www.ehow.com/about_5448397_dangers-frontline.html

Frontline is a popular pet medication used to prevent flea infestation in dogs and cats. While fleas are a nuisance to pets and households, there are some concerns about the use and potential hazards of Frontline as a flea preventative. Adverse effects stemming from the active ingredient in Frontline have been identified for people, pets and other wildlife.

Significance

1.   Frontline is a popular flea treatment for dogs and cats. Manufactured by Merial Pharmaceuticals, the active ingredient in Frontline is fipronil, licensed for use in veterinary medicine as a pesticide. Frontline is applied topically and absorbed through the skin of dogs and cats to prevent flea infestations which can cause skin and health issues for pets and households. According to the manufacturer, Frontline is waterproof and is a veterinarian-recommended flea and tick preventative.

Function

2.   Fipronil, the primary active ingredient found in Frontline, is an insecticide from the phenylpyrazole chemical family. It is used not only for flea and tick solutions like Frontline but in other pesticides used for insect management. Fipronil is a common ingredient for solutions managing ants, beetles, cockroaches, termites and other infestations. On its own, fipronil is a white power. As an active ingredient in Frontline, fipronil is part of a liquid solution designed to protect the animal as it stores in sebaceous glands in the skin. Fipronil destroys insects by disrupting the normal function of the nervous system in insects and is considered more toxic to insects than human and animals.

Hazards for Dogs

3.   Despite fipronil and Frontline's determined safety for animals as a flea preventative, there has been controversy over how safe these products are in long term pet health. According to Whole Dog Journal, a monthly dog care and training publication, the active ingredient found in Frontline is a chemical that has demonstrated potential for nervous system and thyroid toxicity after long term exposure. Even at low dosages, it has been determined that fipronil can potentially cause skin problems, reproductive and hormone issues.

Hazards for Humans

4.   Though application instructions provide instructions for people in applying Frontline on their pets, there is still risk and concern in handling Frontline for the owner. Instructions indicate not to allow the solution to come in contact with human skin. In the event that it does, it is advised to wash the hands immediately and avoid touching other parts of the body. Direct, short-term contact with the skin can result in minor irritation. If ingested, Frontline's active ingredient can cause nausea, headaches, stomach pains, sweating and even seizure. While Environmental Protective Agency research is inconclusive on fipronil's cancer causing effects on humans, it is still classified as a possible human carcinogen.

Hazards for Wildlife

5.   According to the Journal of Pesticide Reform, flea prevention medications like Frontline persist on the skin of an animal treated with the solution for as long as 56 days. During that time, the animal will likely have contact with people and its greater environment. As a general pesticide, the active ingredient fipronil is considered toxic to birds, lizards, fish and other animals, even in minute concentrations with research showing clear adverse effects in reproduction.


Frontline Reactions in Dogs

By Carole Ann, eHow Contributing Writer
Ref: http://www.ehow.com/facts_4886643_frontline-reactions-dogs.html

Frontline is a topical treatment for fleas and ticks on your dog. It is a liquid that comes in a small tube. The medication is to be applied to the back of your dog's neck in one spot on the skin. Sometimes there are immediate side effects as well as health issues that can develop with long-term use of this product. Consult your veterinarian before using any flea and tick treatment on your dog.

Skin Irritation

1.   Some dogs have skin reactions such as itching and redness to the chemicals in Frontline. You can try another brand of flea and tick control, but you could have the same reaction if your dog's skin is sensitive.

Allergies

2.   Your dog could have an allergic reaction to Frontline. This could involve a number of symptoms, including crusting, flaking, bleeding, blisters and hair loss. Consult your veterinarian for treatment.

Cancer and Tumors

3.   According to askthevet.com, fipronil, the active ingredient in Frontline, can cause cancer. It was tested on rats in large doses, and was found to be a possible human carcinogen. Continued use on your dog could be dangerous to his health.

Enlarged Liver and Neurotoxicity

4.   Methopene, another ingregient in Frontline, can cause an enlarged liver. It can also cause neurotoxicity, or damage to the nerves. This type of reaction is exhibited by nausea and vomiting, dizziness, confusion and difficulty breathing. See your veterinarian immediately if your dog has any of these symptoms after using Frontline.

Warning

5.   If your dog exhibits any unusual, severe or violent reaction after using Frontline, you should seek the advice of your veterinarian immediately.


Problems with Frontline Spot-On for Dogs

By Melinda Weaver, eHow Contributing Writer
Ref: http://www.ehow.com/about_5381619_problems-frontline-spoton-dogs.html

Frontline is a common flea preventative for dog owners, which is prescribed by a veterinarian. However, there are many problems associated with Frontline of which pet owners should be aware. The active ingredient in Frontline is an insecticide called fipronil, which can cause adverse reactions in many dogs or have long-term effects. The reactions tend to mild but, in extreme cases, can lead to seizures and have led to increased scrutiny of spot-on flea treatment, which includes Frontline, by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Benefits

1.   According to Merial, which produces Frontline, Frontline Plus is the #1 veterinarian-recommended flea and tick protection. Merial claims that Frontline Plus kills 100% of fleas within 12 hours and continues to work for 30 days. It is safe for puppies and kittens as young as eight weeks and is waterproof. The active ingredient, fipronil, is stored in the oil glands under your dog's skin and is continuously distributed into the skin and hair through the hair follicles. It works by attacking the fleas' nervous systems, causing paralysis and death.

Warning

2.   The World Health Organization classifies fipronil as a Class II moderately hazardous toxin when applied orally or inhaled. Fipronil can potentially disrupt the central nervous system, which can lead to uncontrolled nervous system activity and, in severe cases, death. Symptoms of fipronil poisoning include excitability, lack of coordination and tremors. In the mildest cases, it can simply irritate your pet's skin, causing rashes and itchiness.

Warning to Humans

3.   Because Frontline is applied topically to a dog's skin, humans actually come in contact with the chemical when petting their dogs. A study by K. A Jennings et al. published in "Veterinary and Human Toxicology" tested the levels of exposure by petting dogs after 24 hours and at weekly intervals with white gloves. While there was no residue transmitted to the gloves after five weeks, there were significant amounts after 24 hours, enough for Jennings et al. to conclude that repeated exposure, such as monthly application, could pose serious health risks for humans as well (Reference 3). Fipronil is classified as a Group C (possible human) carcinogen.

Warnings for Long-Term Use

4.   Merial claims that fipronil cannot interfere with a dog's central nervous system, as it does with the fleas, because it isn't absorbed into the bloodstream from the skin, making it perfectly safe. However, tests done on rats cast doubt on these claims. Thus, organs that could be affected by repeated exposure include the liver, kidney and thyroid. If you are concerned about your pet, contact your veterinarian for a blood panel.

Taking Action

5.   The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has stepped up evaluation of flea and tick spot-on products, such as Frontline, due to a number of complaints about adverse reactions. If your dog has such a reaction, visit epa.gov and use the Ask a Question function to contact it. Include the name and EPA registration number of the product, active ingredients of the product if known, breed and age of animal, length of time between application and reaction, description of reaction, date reaction occurred, city and state where it occurred and your contact information.
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« on: April 30, 2010, 09:19:32 PM »

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sartre
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« Reply #1 on: April 30, 2010, 09:59:36 PM »

here are the adverse effects of ingredients found in Spot-on products



To fully understand the risks associated with any of these products, it is important to understand the various components in a flea product, or any chemical product that you may buy, for that matter.

like other chemical products, all flea products are made up of 'active' and 'inert' ingredients; stragely, the actual definition of those phrases are very different from what they seem to connote.  in the case of flea-killing chemicals, the 'active' ingredient does, in fact, target and kill fleas -- but some of the 'inert' ingredients are poisons, too.

While the word 'inert' suggests benign activity and even connotes safety in the minds of many consumers, legally, it simply means added substances that are not the registered 'active' ingredient.  This is important because most people assume that only the 'active' ingredient in a chemical product is of concern.  Many people feel comforted by the idea that a product contains only a minuscule amount of an 'active' ingredients and up to 99.9 percent 'inert' ingredients -- a typical formula in may persticides products.  Actually, this make-up should frighten consumers.


http://www.apnm.org/publications/resources/fleachemfin.pdf
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« Reply #2 on: April 30, 2010, 10:21:09 PM »


During the onset of my dog's mange, 3-4 days after applying Frontline Spot-on, i was surprised to find this in my dog's neck base.  this is the very same spot where i applied the spot-on.   we have a suspicion that exposure to the toxins lowered my dog's immune system, thus mange.



i dont have any clinical proofs that my dog encountered an adverse effect with the toxin but my readings made me think it was.
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« Reply #3 on: April 30, 2010, 10:27:04 PM »

According to the chemist of Makati Dog and Cat hospital that I talked with, Frontline application being a 'pesticide' is enough reason to compromise a sensitive dog's immune.

Mr. Donkey's case is not the first side effect that I have heard about frontline, skin irritation is quite common as well.
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« Reply #4 on: April 30, 2010, 10:30:11 PM »


also, sharing with you the different spot-on products available in the market.  please notice the percentage of 'INERT' ingredients in each products.
 
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« Reply #5 on: April 30, 2010, 10:40:31 PM »


The spot-on flea products fall into four general categories of insecticides. All have neurotoxic effects.

The first three –  imidacloprid (a chloro-nicotinyl insecticide), fipronil (a phenylprazole insecticide), and permethrin (a synthetic broad spectrum pyrethroid insecticide) – all work by disrupting the nervous system of insects, killing by
contact or ingestion. The fourth type contains insect growth regulators (IGR), which don’t kill, but interrupt the flea’s life cycle.

Imidacloprid is the first of its class of insecticides, and is relatively new on the block; it was introduced in 1994. Laboratory testing on mice, dogs, and rats, indicates that this insecticide can be neurotoxic to laboratory animals, causing incoordination, labored breathing, thyroid lesions, reduced birth weights, and increased frequency of birth defects.

Fipronil was introduced in the United States in 1996. It is a neurotoxin and suspected human carcinogen. Fipronil can
cause liver toxicity, thyroid lesions (cancer), damage to the kidneys, increased cholesterol levels, alterations in thyroid hormones, incoordination, labored breathing, increased miscarriages, and smaller offspring.  In a review of the fipronil pet formulations, Dr. Virginia Dobozy of the EPA’s Pesticide Division states that “this is a persistent chemical that has the potential for nervous system and thyroid toxicity after long term exposure at low dosages.”

Permethrin, a synthetic broad spectrum pyrethroid insecticide, is suspected to be an endocrine disrupter and a carcinogenic insecticide (causing lung cancer and liver tumors in laboratory animals). Some permethrin products have additional “active” ingredients in lesser percentages, and include methoprene, and pyriproxyfen

Methoprene and pyriproxyfen are both insect growth regulators (IGR), which limit the development of juvenile fleas so they cannot reproduce. Test results indicate that methoprene causes enlarged livers and degeneration of parts of the kidneys.
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« Reply #6 on: April 30, 2010, 11:14:20 PM »

 eeek eeek eeek eeek eeek eeek

 gagged gagged gagged gagged gagged gagged

di pa ako makapag isip.. nakaka shock itong infos na ito..  crrrry crrrry
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« Reply #7 on: April 30, 2010, 11:38:19 PM »

wait lang sir amang, kulang pa yan  gagged

joined research effort namin ni tess to bring justice to mr donkey  Grin and to at least bring awareness to ppf family
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« Reply #8 on: May 02, 2010, 09:50:10 AM »

ang hirap talaga magdecide. so many items out there that promises a lot. pero if you come to think about it parang ano pa bang option ang matitira sa inyo ng pet mo.

you can do what i've been doing for a month now. nagkalat ang mga garapata sa new place namin. kahit araw-araw ako mag-garapata hunt the next day mero na naman ung lab ko. i think galing ata sa mga aso ng kaphit bahay although hindi siya nakikimingle sa mga aso dito ganon pa rin. somehow the pesky little creatures find their way into our house and into my lab.

kung baga sa comelec Mano-Mano ako ngayon mga garapata at iba pa kasi ayaw ko ng Automated (frontline) Grin
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« Reply #9 on: May 02, 2010, 11:31:54 AM »

I have heard of concerns over not just frontline but spot on flea and tick products in general.
As recent as March 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been taking steps to make these products safer and to impose restrictions/regulations on their use.
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/petproductseval.html

EPA Data Evaluation Records of 2008 Pet Spot-On Products: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/petproductsders.html
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« Reply #10 on: May 02, 2010, 12:22:26 PM »

My dog Sophie also had demodectic mange last year. We noticed the first bald spots days after applying Frontline Spray (it was the first time I ever used the spray on them -- when we had to, we usually went with Frontline Plus). I can't really say for sure that it was the Frontline Spray that caused the mange but it must have been one of the stress triggers.

In my research, I came across this article that pointed to Fipronil as a cause of mange. An excerpt:

  We recently learned from personal experience just how frustrating demodex can be. And everyone should know that our problems were NOT linked to a problem in our breeding lines but was in fact a direct result and side effect from over exposure to Frontline Flea and Tick Spray. Fipronil is the active ingredient in Frontline (and some others) and while eveything on the label will say it is safe for warm blooded animals, PAY ATTENTION, it can cause reoccuring cases of demodectic mange in future offspring. Fipronil crosses the placenta. It has also been proven to reduce reproduction in breeding animals to 67%. It can cause sterility and in some cases death. It is absorbed into the sabaceous glands within the first 24 hours after treatment. Sebum secreted from these glands is what demodectic mange mites live on and multiply from.

from http://www.addy.com/hicc//demodex.html

That was the only article I could find though so I really can't vouch for its accuracy. I do know though that I also experienced what they did, so that made two of us. And now sartre with his dog Mr Donkey too (although his was maybe caused by Frontline Plus, which I personally never had any problems with).
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« Reply #11 on: May 02, 2010, 12:28:58 PM »

In my research, I came across this article that pointed to Fipronil as a cause of mange. An excerpt:

  We recently learned from personal experience just how frustrating demodex can be. And everyone should know that our problems were NOT linked to a problem in our breeding lines but was in fact a direct result and side effect from over exposure to Frontline Flea and Tick Spray. Fipronil is the active ingredient in Frontline (and some others) and while eveything on the label will say it is safe for warm blooded animals, PAY ATTENTION, it can cause reoccuring cases of demodectic mange in future offspring. Fipronil crosses the placenta. It has also been proven to reduce reproduction in breeding animals to 67%. It can cause sterility and in some cases death. It is absorbed into the sabaceous glands within the first 24 hours after treatment. Sebum secreted from these glands is what demodectic mange mites live on and multiply from.

from http://www.addy.com/hicc//demodex.html

That was the only article I could find though so I really can't vouch for its accuracy. I do know though that I also experienced what they did, so that made two of us. And now sartre with his dog Mr Donkey too (although his was maybe caused by Frontline Plus, which I personally never had any problems with).


I haven't used frontline in quite a while, mainly because I started to notice that it seemed to lose effectivity.
But this article is a little bit scary...  help 
Maybe the same approach when giving vaccines should apply? Don't use spot-ons if your dog's immune system is weak/compromised?
« Last Edit: May 02, 2010, 12:31:38 PM by DogCrazy » Logged

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« Reply #12 on: May 02, 2010, 12:38:05 PM »

@Doc K That might be a safe approach -- not applying either the spray or spot-on (although in our case, it was the spray that did it) when the dog is stressed or has a lowered/weakened immune system. Like I say, it's hard to pinpoint Sophie's cause of mange since this was her schedule before we found the bald spots:

March 28 - 29  Stayed in Iloilo for Dog Show
April 9 - 12     Stayed at a beach for Holy Week, then came home to find that Tubby (who stayed home) had a lot of ticks
April 15          Applied Frontline Spray since couldn't find Frontline Plus anywhere in Bacolod
April 20          First bald spots appeared on left armpit and near both hocks

So I'm thinking she may have already been stressed from all the travel, then the Frontline spray might have been the last straw.
« Last Edit: May 02, 2010, 12:40:09 PM by xtine » Logged


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« Reply #13 on: May 02, 2010, 12:48:45 PM »

@Doc K That might be a safe approach -- not applying either the spray or spot-on (although in our case, it was the spray that did it) when the dog is stressed or has a lowered/weakened immune system. Like I say, it's hard to pinpoint Sophie's cause of mange since this was her schedule before we found the bald spots:

March 28 - 29  Stayed in Iloilo for Dog Show
April 9 - 12     Stayed at a beach for Holy Week, then came home to find that Tubby (who stayed home) had a lot of ticks
April 15          Applied Frontline Spray since couldn't find Frontline Plus anywhere in Bacolod
April 20          First bald spots appeared on left armpit and near both hocks

So I'm thinking she may have already been stressed from all the travel, then the Frontline spray might have been the last straw.


But Fipronil is the active ingredient in all of them right (Frontline and Frontline Plus and Frontline spray)? I think the difference is that Frontline Plus also has methoprenene - I'm not sure if the spray has it too.
One thing that COULD HAVE (speculating only) happened is that with the spray, in addition to the dermal exposure (through the skin like with spot ons and with the spray), it was also possible that there was ingestion or inhalation of Fipronil as well (by licking her coat and by inhaling some of the mist) -- SO add to that the stress of travel and that could have led to the adverse effect (???).

The list posted here shows that there can be adverse effects through dermal and oral exposure: 
Data Evaluation Records of 2008 Pet Spot-On Products - http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/petproductsders.html

I also notice that the weight ranges of the spot on products are fairly large (like 25-50kg for example).
I'm just speculating... BUT with such a broad weight range, wouldn't dogs at the lower range (25kg) get a higher dose per kilogram of body weight compared to dogs at the higher range (50kg)? Maybe adjusting the product dosages to make the weight ranges smaller (like for example 25-35 kg as opposed to 25-50kg) would help lessen the incidence of adverse reactions?
« Last Edit: May 02, 2010, 12:56:34 PM by DogCrazy » Logged

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« Reply #14 on: May 02, 2010, 01:32:43 PM »

One thing that COULD HAVE (speculating only) happened is that with the spray, in addition to the dermal exposure (through the skin like with spot ons and with the spray), it was also possible that there was ingestion or inhalation of Fipronil as well (by licking her coat and by inhaling some of the mist) -- SO add to that the stress of travel and that could have led to the adverse effect (???).

You're right, I'm guessing she may have licked some and inhaled a lot too. (Ang daya di ba, they ask the people applying the spray to wear masks, goggles and gloves pero the dog is soaked in it?!) If I could take it back I would but at the time I really felt like I didn't have a choice since I was so scared of a babesia relapse for Clark.

Quote
I also notice that the weight ranges of the spot on products are fairly large (like 25-50kg for example).
I'm just speculating... BUT with such a broad weight range, wouldn't dogs at the lower range (25kg) get a higher dose per kilogram of body weight compared to dogs at the higher range (50kg)? Maybe adjusting the product dosages to make the weight ranges smaller (like for example 25-35 kg as opposed to 25-50kg) would help lessen the incidence of adverse reactions?

When I need to apply Frontline on them, I usually buy the one for large dogs (20 - 40 kg). I use two pipettes and split it between the four of them -- Hummer and Clark split a pipette equally, and Sophie and Tubby share a pipette 2/3 and 1/3. I don't know if that lessens the effectivity but I have noticed that it's doesn't get rid of the ticks 100%.
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"Breeding means you enter your breed's gene pool and leave footprints for eternity. Take care that the footprints you leave are worthy of being followed." -Carol Sloan
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