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Author Topic: Kennel Cough in Dogs and Cats  (Read 28376 times)
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goldengirl
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« on: January 04, 2009, 04:54:16 PM »


If you have a lot of cats/dogs in the house, or if you regularly bring your cat/dog to places where there are a lot of dogs around, it is recommended that your pet be immunized for what is known as Kennel Cough. The reason for this is that Kennel Cough rapidly spreads from animal to animal. In mild cases, it will merely manifest itself as coughing or nasal discharge. However, in more severe cases it could lead to pneumonia or even death.

This is just one more thing for us pet owners to consider. The kennel cough vaccine is an additional vaccine apart from the standard vaccination protocol for dogs and cats.

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Kennel Cough (Infectious Tracheobronchitis) in Dogs

'Kennel Cough' is the term that was commonly applied to the most prevalent upper respiratory problem in dogs in the United States. Recently, the condition has become known as tracheobronchitis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, Bordetellosis, or Bordetella. It is highly contagious in dogs. The disease is found worldwide and will infect a very high percentage of dogs in their lifetime.
Infectious agents involved

There are many different agents that can cause of tracheobronchitis. The most common are parainfluenza virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and mycoplasma. Canine adenovirus type 2, reovirus, and canine herpes virus are thought to possibly contribute to the disease, as well. Although any one of these organisms can cause symptoms of the disease, the majority of cases are the result of more than one organism.

The most common viral agent is parainfluenza virus. This common virus will cause mild symptoms lasting less than 6 days unless there is involvement of other bacteria, as is usually the case. Most 5-way vaccines and 'kennel cough' vaccines offer some protection against this virus.

Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most common bacteria isolated from dogs with tracheobronchitis. Clinical signs of infections occur 2-14 days after exposure, and if uncomplicated with other agents, symptoms will last around 10 days. However, after the infection has been resolved, the affected animal will continue to shed the bacteria for 6 to 14 weeks and can spread the disease to other susceptible animals during that time. Bordetella is one of the agents protected against through the use of intranasal 'kennel cough' vaccines. Parainfluenza and Bordetella most commonly appear together in infectious tracheobronchitis, creating a disease that normally lasts from 14-20 days.

Symptoms

The most common symptom is a dry hacking cough sometimes followed by retching. Many owners describe the cough as having a 'honking sound.' A watery nasal discharge may also be present. With mild cases, dogs continue to eat and be alert and active. Many times, there is a recent history of boarding or coming in contact with other dogs. In more severe cases, the symptoms may progress and include lethargy, fever, inappetence, pneumonia, and in very severe cases, even death. The majority of severe cases occur in immunocompromised animals, or young unvaccinated puppies.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms and a history of recent exposure to other dogs. Bacterial cultures, viral isolation, and blood work can be performed to verify individual agents of the disease, but due to the characteristic nature of the symptoms, these tests are not routinely performed.

Treatment

There are two treatment options depending on the severity of the disease. In the most common mild (uncomplicated) form of the disease, antibiotics may or may not be used. Treating the mild case does not shorten the length in which the animal will be a potential spreader of the disease. In addition, bronchodilators like aminophylline or cough suppressants may also be used in treatment of mild cases.

In more severe (complicated) cases where the animal is not eating, running a fever, or showing signs of pneumonia, antibiotics are often used. The most common ones are doxycycline or trimethoprim-sulfa. However, many other choices are also available. Steroids or cough suppressants are not usually recommended because of the risk of immunosuppression with steroids and the need to continue to clear extra fluid or mucous in pneumonia patients. Bronchodilators and even aerosol therapy can be used. In moderate or severe cases, veterinary care should be instituted, as the resultant pneumonia could become life threatening if not treated properly and promptly.

Because pressure on the throat and trachea can make coughing worse, it is recommended that dogs with a cough should wear a head collar or harness instead of a regular neck collar.

Vaccination and prevention

The best prevention is to not expose your dog to other dogs, especially young puppies. If this cannot be avoided, then proper vaccination is the next best option. Chances are that if your dog is regularly vaccinated with a standard 5-way or 7-way vaccine, he is already being protected against several of the agents causing tracheobronchitis, mainly parainfluenza and adenovirus. However, these vaccines alone rarely provide protection against contracting the disease, although they will help reduce the severity of the disease if the animal becomes infected.

There is an injectable Bordatella vaccine, and one that is given intranasally (squirted into the nostrils). Neither vaccine will totally prevent infection with Bordatella. For the injectable vaccine, 2 doses must be given 3-4 weeks apart, and protection does not occur until 1-2 weeks after the second injection.

More commonly, for best protection, an intranasal vaccine containing both parainfluenza and Bordetella is used. Intranasal vaccines create localized immunity that greatly reduces the incidence of clinical signs and illness. The vaccine may be used in puppies as young as 3 weeks of age, only one dose is necessary to provide protection, and protection occurs as early as 3-4 days following vaccination. There are several precautions and warnings that need to be observed pertaining to this vaccine. Some dogs will develop mild signs similar to tracheobronchitis when given this vaccine. Very often, the symptoms will last for several days and the dog will recover without treatment. Dogs that are vaccinated can also shed the virus and cause other dogs to become mildly infected and show mild signs. This shedding usually lasts less than 72 hours. In addition, it takes up to 4 days after vaccination for dogs to develop protection. When you combine these facts, you will see why it is strongly recommend that a dog not be given intranasal vaccine within 72 hours of coming into contact with other susceptible dogs. Do not give the vaccine the day before a dog show, boarding, etc. Try to give at least four days before contact with other dogs and preferably 7 days. This way you will protect your dog from becoming infected by other dogs, and protect those dogs from becoming infected by yours.

In kennels where tracheobronchitis is a problem, strict hygiene with thorough cleaning and disinfection of cages and food and water containers is essential. In addition, kennels that are indoors should have good ventilation with an air turnover rate of at least 12 times an hour. Agents causing tracheobronchitis can be transmitted on hands and clothing as well as through the air, so infected animals must be isolated and handlers should wear gloves and use proper handwashing to help prevent spread. Vaccination of all animals, especially puppies is indicated in problem kennels. After initial vaccination as puppies, a yearly booster is recommended. However, some dogs that are at very high risk are vaccinated every six months.

Human health risk

Until recently, infectious tracheobronchitis was considered to not be a human health risk. Recently however, research indicates that Bordetella bronchiseptica may cause disease in some humans, primarily those with compromised immune systems. In normal, healthy adults there does not appear to be a risk, but young children and immunocompromised individuals should take precautions against coming into contact with animals that have symptoms of tracheobronchitis.

Summary

'Kennel Cough,' now more commonly referred to as 'infectious tracheobronchitis' is a widespread disease caused by several different viruses and bacteria. It is usually a self-limiting disease and most animals do not require treatment. Intranasal vaccines are effective, but due to some possible side effects are recommended for animals that are at higher risk. Infectious tracheobronchitis is a disease of dogs and wild canids, it does not appear to be a risk to healthy humans.

Reprinted from:
http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2102&aid=452
« Last Edit: January 04, 2009, 05:02:09 PM by goldengirl » Logged


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« on: January 04, 2009, 04:54:16 PM »

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« Reply #1 on: January 04, 2009, 05:06:42 PM »

Bordetella in Cats

Overview:

Bordetellosis (Bd), also known as Bordetella is a highly infectious disease more often associated with dogs (known as "kennel cough"). However it is also  found in cats. It is caused by the bacteria Bordetella bronchiseptica & may be the primary cause of respiratory disease in cats or it may run as a concurrent infection with viral infections such as calicivirus & feline herpesvirus.

Bordetella bronchiseptica is related to Bordetella pertussis, which is responsible for whooping cough in humans.

It is more commonly a problem in multi-cat households.


How is bordetella transmitted?

Bordetella is transmitted via aerosol (sneezing & or coughing).

As well as cat to cat transmission, dogs may also pass the disease on to cats.

Multi-cat households, boarding catteries & shelters may be at greater risk than single cat households due to the highly infectiousness of this disease.


Symptoms of  bordetella in cats:

Often, symptoms of feline bordetella in adults are mild, but kittens are more seriously affected than may appear to be fine one moment, but the disease can rapidly progress to bronchopneumonia & cause death.


Symptoms of bordetella are similar to that of other causes of upper respiratory infections in cats & include;

Coughing has been reported, but this may not be as common as it is in dogs.
Sneezing
Nasal discharge
Ocular discharge
Fever
Anorexia (loss of appetite)
Depression
Submandibular lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes under the jaw)

It is possible for a cat to be a carrier. That is they 'carry' & can pass on the infection but do not show any outward symptoms themselves.


Diagnosis of  bordetella:

Diagnosis cannot be made by physical examination alone as symptoms are similar to that of other causes of respiratory diseases. 

Oropharyngeal and or nasal swabs to isolate the bacteria

It is more difficult to diagnose in carrier cats as they only shed the bacteria intermittently & therefore may return negative test results.


Treatment & prevention of bordetella:

Bordetella can be treated with antibiotics. Your veterinarian will prescribe the appropriate course for your cat.

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« Reply #2 on: January 08, 2009, 05:57:32 PM »

Thanks for the post,Atty Jen.In our case,once we hear of kennel cough cases elsewhere,we boost up their ascorbate suppliment.Our vet says it will make them safe from getting kennel cough.Or,we get them vaccinated with kennel cough right away.Tho,our vet advises us that if the symptom is already present,the dog can't get a kennel cough vaccination anymore,just more dosage of ascorbate.Ascorbate she says is better than ascorbic acid because it doesn not make your dog get acidic.
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« Reply #3 on: January 08, 2009, 10:47:37 PM »

teka, yung aspin dito na female, i sometimes heared na umuubo, pero di frequent na sunod sunod, may pup dito pero di naman umuubo (di pa nahahawa?) since darating si blake dito laguna this saturday and he sometimes go near the aspin baka mahawa sya?

kelangan ko ba hindi palapitin si blake sa aspin? (na masungit naman kapag hindi sya in-heat) san nakakabili ng ascorbate? pang tao din ba yan?
« Last Edit: January 08, 2009, 10:48:44 PM by amang » Logged
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« Reply #4 on: January 09, 2009, 12:04:50 AM »

teka, yung aspin dito na female, i sometimes heared na umuubo, pero di frequent na sunod sunod, may pup dito pero di naman umuubo (di pa nahahawa?) since darating si blake dito laguna this saturday and he sometimes go near the aspin baka mahawa sya?

kelangan ko ba hindi palapitin si blake sa aspin? (na masungit naman kapag hindi sya in-heat) san nakakabili ng ascorbate? pang tao din ba yan?

Yes pang tao yan pag wala ka namang makita na ascorbate just buy the buffered c  or erter c or ascorbyl palmitate which are also gentle to the stomach  Grin ....( Parang sa ating tao din some cannot take the regular vitamin c kase acidic ) pinaka mura is buffered C.....
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« Reply #5 on: January 09, 2009, 12:29:27 AM »

this is a very apt thread !  ayos!

there are vaccinations available to somewhat prevent it or lessen the impact of this particular "virulent" bug.
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« Reply #6 on: January 09, 2009, 12:38:04 AM »

Yes pang tao yan pag wala ka namang makita na ascorbate just buy the buffered c  or erter c or ascorbyl palmitate which are also gentle to the stomach  Grin ....( Parang sa ating tao din some cannot take the regular vitamin c kase acidic ) pinaka mura is buffered C.....

thanks FRITZEE !!  Wink
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« Reply #7 on: January 09, 2009, 12:41:48 AM »

this is a very apt thread !  ayos!

there are vaccinations available to somewhat prevent it or lessen the impact of this particular "virulent" bug.

Thank you!

Yes, the vaccine is highly recommended for MULTIPLE DOG AND/OR CAT households (considered as high risk households). Just one bad case of bordetella can put all your furbabies in the hospital all at the same time or one after another. But that could be avoided if you have all of them regularly vaccinated against bordetella. As they say, an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure.
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« Reply #8 on: April 03, 2009, 04:02:09 AM »

  

Thanks, hmm, I need that infos lalo ngayon...
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« Reply #9 on: May 05, 2009, 01:28:27 AM »

pwede ba sa pup ung (ascorbate , buffered c  , erter c or ascorbyl palmitate) gano karami ang dosage???syrup ba sila???san madali makabili...thanks
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« Reply #10 on: May 25, 2009, 01:27:58 AM »

Cool! love your posts they are very Informative  thanks
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« Reply #11 on: June 29, 2009, 01:17:15 AM »

nahawa dati yung tzu ko ng kennel cough... Kasi pinagroom ko cia sa animal haus sa market eh dat tym andami ribg doggy na nakapending for grooming...pinacheck up ko kagad sa vet kasi kakaawa kapag sumusumpong yung ubo nia

3 medicine yung pinatake sa kanya
      Cotrimoxazole
      Ascorbic acid
     Colloidal suspension


Mga two weeks din ciang nag undergo ng medication.. Kaya after niya magkarecover pinavaccine ko cia kagad para hindi na magkaron ng reinfection...
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« Reply #12 on: June 29, 2009, 02:01:51 AM »

nangyari samin dito yan sa lb.. it was after the dogshow funmatch held here by some vet org. last last year. after nung show halos lahat nung dogs namin na sumali e nagka kennel cough. buti nga naagapan namin and hindi lumabas mga dogs namin mga mag 1 month.
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« Reply #13 on: June 29, 2009, 02:12:07 AM »

 thanks thanks thanks thanks thanks atty. jen, ganyan kinamatay nung isang pusa namin... crrrry crrrry crrrry kawawa naman, kaya ngayon lagi kami may stock ng vibravet sa bahay. ang bilis nila magkahawaan eh. crrrry

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« Reply #14 on: June 29, 2009, 02:26:31 AM »

You're all welcome...just sharing some useful information..
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